MPs have agreed to hand the Scottish Parliament the powers it needs to hold a referendum on independence.
The Government's order, which hands power to Holyrood to hold the poll in the autumn of next year, now needs to be approved by the House of Lords.
The order was passed unopposed by MPs as Scottish Secretary Michael Moore told the House of Commons the "great debate" about whether Scotland could now separate from the rest of the United Kingdom could begin.
He said the legal order would give the Scottish Parliament the legal, fair and decisive referendum pledged in the Edinburgh Agreement and signed by David Cameron and Alex Salmond last year.
Mr Moore said: "Deciding Scotland's future within the UK will be the most important decision we as Scots take in our lifetime.
"It is now essential the referendum decision is focused on determining whether Scotland chooses to remain an integral part of the most successful partnership of nations the world has ever seen, to remain part of a family of nations that works in the interests of all - or whether Scotland wishes to leave and go it alone."
The SNP's Westminster leader Angus Robertson said Scotland faced "no greater democratic choice" than deciding whether it would remain a part of the United Kingdom, telling MPs that devolving power for the referendum marked a "huge milestone".
Mr Robertson said: "I believe that the best future for the people of Scotland, a fairer, more economically successful, more outward looking and internationally engaged Scotland will be secured by a yes vote in the referendum."
Former chancellor Alistair Darling, the No campaign figurehead, said the result must be decisive.
The Labour MP, now a backbencher, said: "Whatever the result, we want to be able to be in a position where we accept Scotland had its say, Scotland reached its verdict and let us then abide by that."