Sales have slumped again on Scotland's high streets, with retail experts warning this could be a worrying signal ahead of the crucial Christmas period.
The latest figures showed that like-for-like sales - which strip out factors such as new store openings - were down by 2.8% last month when compared to October the following year. While like-for-like food sales were up by 0.3% over the year, non-food sales slumped by 5.6%.
The latest Scottish Retail Consortium (SRC) KPMG retail sales monitor also showed total sales fell by 1.3% from last October - but when shop price inflation was factored in, this had dropped by 2.8% in real terms.
The fall in sales is worse than that seen across the UK - where like-for-like sales fell by just 0.1% and total sales rose by 1.1% in October.
David McCorquodale, head of retail for KPMG, said the figures from north of the border "send a worrying signal about the festive season ahead for retailers in Scotland".
He said that apart from the month of April - when Easter had an impact - the October figures had seen the largest decline in total sales since January while the fall in like-for-like was the worst since May last year.
Cold weather at the start of October may have encouraged people to buy new boots but sales of other items did not fare as well.
Mr McCorquodale said: "Food and drink sales failed to track inflation and, therefore, reflected a decline in volumes. Despite the cold temperatures in October, clothing and footwear sales had good growth in the first week but then faded in the latter half of the month."
Fiona Moriarty, director of the Scottish Retail Consortium, said the October sales figures were "not the result retailers wanted". She added: "September's modest sales boost offered some cause for cautious optimism, but continuing concerns about the economy led many customers to batten down the hatches again in October."
A Scottish Government spokeswoman said: "Official Scottish Government statistics released last month, which cover a far larger sample than the SRC, show that the volume of retail sales in Scotland grew by 0.9% in the third quarter of 2012. This was greater than the 0.7% growth seen in GB over the same period."